A chemical or technique that makes a human or other animal lose feeling. Anesthesia may or may not make the human or other animal become unconscious.
Animal Welfare Act
A U.S. law passed in 1966 and amended in 1970, 1976, and 1985 that describes the minimal amount of care and comfort most warm-blooded animals who are used in research must be given. Strangely, mice and rats were not included in the law, even though they are the most-often-used animals in research.
A person who has an excellent knowledge and understanding of the ancient Greek and Roman literature that contributed to Western philosophy and government.
Testing possible real-world situations on computer programs to try to understand how things work in the real world. For example, there are many computer programs that simulate animal dissection.
Here are some sites that have computer dissection simulations:
- Froguts: Virtual Dissection Software
- Virtual Frog Dissection Kit
- Virtual Pig Dissection
- Virtual Worm Tour
- Starfish Dissection
- Grasshopper Anatomy
Exploring anatomy by cutting open and looking inside a dead animal. If someone were to use a live animal instead, this would be called vivisection. Most of the early cries for mercy towards animal research were cries to end vivisection.
For information about your right to choose not to dissect an animal see our Alternatives to Dissection page.
To kill a human or other animal as painlessly as possible.
A scientific research study.
Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals
A manual published by National Academy of Sciences that describes how all warm-blooded animals who are used in research should be treated.
A law passed in 1985 that covers how all warm-blooded animals must be treated when used in behavioral or biomedical research. Behavior research is the study of why animals behave the way they do. Biomedical research is the study of the health of humans and other animals, and how to improve it.
A person who studies living things too small to be seen with the naked eye. Bacteria are one example of something that a microbiologist would study.
A division of the Department of Health and Human Services that oversees research, grants money for research on health issues, and provides information about health issues.
Principles of Humane Experimental Technique
A ground-breaking 1958 book by William Russell and Rex Burch that described the challenges we all have to face when using animals in research.
The study of the minds and actions of humans and others animals.
A human, ape, monkey, or related animal like a lemur or tarsier.
One of the Three R's. It says that we should constantly work to reduce the number of animals used in research.
One of the Three R's. Refinement means to improve the lives and living conditions of animals used in research. If we are to use animals in research, we are obliged to make their lives as comfortable and happy as possible.
One of the Three R's. Replacement means that we should constantly try to find new and better ways to do research that do not require animals. Unfortunately, some important experiments do require that we use animals. However, this is no excuse for us not to search to find ways to do these important experiments without animals.
A member of the U.S. House of Representatives (also used for members of state Houses of Representatives). Representatives are hired based on the number of people in a state—states with more people have more representatives. You can find to your representative's addresses and information at ASPCA's Legislator Look-up. You can find more information about the House, find voting histories, or write to your representative at http://clerk.house.gov/. For news on animal-related laws that are being voted on in your state, visit ASPCA's Lobby section.
A place where animals can live in peace and safety.
A member of the U.S. Senate. Each state has two senators, regardless of the size of the state. Like representatives, senators are legislators, which means they make laws. You can write to your representative at http://www.senate.gov/. At that site, you can also find more information about committee, voting histories, etc. For news on animal-related laws that are being voted upon in your state, visit ASPCA's Lobby section.
The study of large groups of people, and how and why they act and think the ways they do.
The core of the prescription by William Russell and Rex Burch's Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The Three R's are Reduction, Refinement, and Replacement.
A group of living cells that is kept alive outside of the animal from which they came.
Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW)
"[A] unique scientific and technical animal welfare organization. We use scientific knowledge and established expertise to improve the welfare of animals kept as pets, in zoos, laboratories, and on farms and of wild animals with which we interact." They appointed William Russell and Rex Burch to write The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. They have been helping the welfare of animals ever since.
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
The U.S. government organization that oversees the treatment of warm-blooded that are used in research.
Animals who have backbones. Mammals (like humans, gorillas, squirrels, and whales), marsupials (like koalas and kangaroos), birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish are examples of vertebrates. Animals like insects, jellyfish, octopi, and worms are not vertebrates.
An animal doctor.
Animals who make enough of their own heat (from the food they eat) that they do not need to rely on the sun for warmth. Mammals and birds are warm-blooded. Many paleontologists believe that some smaller dinosaurs may also have been warm-blooded.