Pet Care

Fear of Other Animals

Brown puppy is held by woman in black shirt

Some dogs are afraid of other animals. All animals may trigger a dog’s fear, or only certain species, or only unknown individuals of a certain species. Dogs respond to fear in different ways. If your dog is afraid of other animals, you might notice common fearful behaviors, such as trembling, panting, avoidance, whining, salivating, lip licking, hiding behind people or under furniture, urinating or defecating. Your dog might also frantically attempt to escape from the presence of an animal who frightens her. Sometimes, instead of trying to flee or avoid something frightening, a dog will respond to fear with defensive aggression, which might involve behaviors like barking, lunging, growling, snapping or biting.

Why Does My Dog Fear Other Animals?

Genetic Predisposition to Fear of New Things

Exposing a young puppy to a variety of pleasant experiences with new people, places, objects and other animals will help her mature into a well adjusted adult dog. However, some dogs are just born with more timid personalities. Because of their genetic makeup, these dogs can be more likely to experience anxiety around other animals, even if they’ve had adequate exposure to them as pups.

Inadequate Socialization to Other Animals

Dogs who didn’t get enough exposure to a variety of unfamiliar animals as young puppies might react fearfully to them as adults.

Inadequate Continued Exposure to Other Animals

Sometimes, even if a dog has had adequate exposure to other animals as a young puppy, she’ll display fearful reactions to them if she hasn’t seen any for a significant period of time (usually longer than six months).

Traumatic Event Associated with the Presence of Other Animals

If a dog who was previously unafraid of other animals experiences a traumatic or painful event in an animal’s presence, she might associate that animal or other animals with the unpleasant event. For instance, if your dog is attacked, threatened or frightened when in the presence of your cat, she might become afraid and anxious when around cats in the future—even if your cat had nothing to do with the traumatic event.

No Discernible Cause

Sometimes a dog who was previously unafraid of other animals will develop a fearful response to them for no obvious reason.

Is It Really Fear?

Canine submissive body postures can look a lot like fearful behavior. For example, if your dog rolls over, lowers her tail and whimpers when interacting with other animals but makes no attempt to avoid them, she might be displaying normal submissive body language, rather than acting fearfully. For more information about interpreting canine communication, please see our article, Canine Body Language.

What to Do If Your Dog Fears Other Animals

Pet parents often mistake fear-related problems for stubbornness. If you ask your dog to perform a behavior that makes her scared, she might refuse to obey. For instance, if you call your dog to come to you, but you’re standing close to an animal she fears, she might not respond to your command. Keep in mind, however, that if this happens, your dog isn’t disobedient or stubborn. She’s afraid. Her anxiety and fear might make it impossible for her to do whatever it is that you’ve asked her to do. So instead of getting frustrated, try to focus on helping your dog overcome her fear. Read on to find out how.

If Your Dog Becomes Aggressive When Afraid

Dogs who respond to fear with defensive aggression might bark, growl, lunge, snap or bite at other animals who scare them. Defensively aggressive dogs might also exhibit other kinds of fearful behavior, such as trembling, panting, whining, salivating, hiding behind people or under furniture, urinating, defecating or attempting to run away.

If your dog displays aggressive behavior when she’s afraid—or if you think she might—you’ll need to do two things:

  1. Always carefully manage your dog’s behavior to avoid or prevent problems and ensure that no one gets hurt.
  2. Contact a professional to help you attempt to change your dog’s behavior.

Manage Your Dog’s Behavior

When animals experience extreme stress or fear, they often resort to aggression to defend themselves from perceived threats. Although it’s a natural response, aggressive behavior can be dangerous. It’s crucial to use management techniques that prevent or avoid the problem to protect other animals, other people, your dog and yourself. One of the best ways to avoid provoking your dog’s aggressive response to fear is to avoid the animals who frighten her.

Unfortunately, you might not be able to avoid other animals at all times. For example, if your dog fears other dogs, you’ll periodically need to take her to the vet, and you might encounter other dogs in the vet’s office. If you must take your dog to a place where she might see animals that frighten her, follow these guidelines:

  • Always keep your dog on a leash.
  • Stay as far away from other animals as possible. Because she’s afraid, your dog might growl, bark or even bite other animals that get too close to her. If she’s extremely anxious, she might even direct her defensive aggression at people if they attempt to approach or touch her.
  • If people try to approach your dog when she’s frightened or nervous, tell them not to do so. Handling or attention from people—especially strangers—might increase your dog’s fear. You can politely explain that because your dog isn’t feeling comfortable, she doesn’t want to visit.
  • Keep your movements slow and your voice calm. If you seem anxious or upset, your dog might become even more afraid.
  • Consider muzzle training. Teaching your dog to wear a muzzle before she encounters other animals that frighten her can keep everyone safe when she eventually does react to an animal she fears. Please read our article, Teaching Your Dog to Wear a Muzzle, to learn how to teach your dog to comfortably wear a muzzle.

Get Help

A qualified professional can help you design and carry out a plan to change the way your dog feels and acts. If your dog shows fearful and aggressive behavior, consult a Certified Applied Animal Behaviorist (CAAB or ACAAB) or a board-certified veterinary behaviorist (Dip ACVB). If you can’t find a behaviorist, you can seek help from a Certified Professional Dog Trainer (CPDT), but be sure that the trainer is qualified to help you. Determine whether she or he has education and experience in treating fear and aggression, since this kind of expertise isn’t required for CPDT certification. Please see our article, Finding Professional Help, to locate one of these experts in your area.

If Your Dog Doesn’t Become Aggressive When Afraid

Keep in mind that fear can trigger aggression. Even if your dog has never displayed aggression in the past, any dog can resort to aggressive behavior if she feels extremely threatened or afraid. If a dog first tries to reduce her fear by escaping from a place or situation and that strategy doesn’t work, she might switch to defensive aggression. If your dog has a fear-related behavior problem, be sure that you don’t place people or other animals at risk by putting your dog in situations that might provoke aggressive behavior.

It’s vital to avoid using punishment when trying to change your fearful dog’s behavior. When something frightens your dog, she experiences a great deal of stress, and any kind of verbal or physical punishment will merely intensify her negative emotions, making her more defensive and fearful in the future.

To help your fearful dog, first identify the specific animal or animals that trigger her anxiety. After you’ve identified all the animals that frighten your dog, you’ll need to do two things:

  1. Use management techniques to minimize or avoid provoking your dog’s fear.
  2. Design and implement a treatment plan to change the way your dog feels and acts.

Management Techniques

While you attempt to help your dog overcome her fear of other animals, it’s important not to trigger her fear. If possible, avoid taking your dog to places where the two of you might encounter other animals who scare her.

Unfortunately, you might not be able to avoid other animals at all times. For example, if your dog fears other dogs, you’ll eventually need to take her to the vet for vaccinations, and you might encounter other dogs in the vet’s office. If you must take your dog to a place where she might see animals who frighten her, follow these guidelines:

  • Always keep your dog on a leash.
  • If people try to approach your dog when she’s frightened or nervous, tell them not to do so. Handling or attention from people—especially strangers—might increase your dog’s fear. You can politely explain that because your dog isn’t feeling comfortable, she doesn’t want to visit.
  • Keep your movements slow and your voice calm. If you seem anxious or upset, your dog might become even more afraid.

The U-Turn

Because you could unexpectedly encounter an animal that frightens your dog when the two of you are out and about, it might help to teach her an easy U-Turn. Sometimes dogs can freeze up or lunge and bark when frightened. This easy U-Turn will enable you and your dog to quickly and calmly “get out of Dodge” without your worsening your dog’s stress by forcing or dragging her with the leash.

Practice this first in a calm place without any scary animals present. Then you can try the U-Turn when you’re taking walks outside with your dog. Eventually, you’ll be able to use the U-Turn to quickly lead your dog away when you run into an animal who frightens her. Here are the steps:

  1. Put a leash on your dog, and take her to a quiet place where she won’t encounter anything frightening.
  2. Start walking with your dog in a straight line.
  3. After three or four steps, say “U-Turn” in an upbeat voice. Then reach down and put a tasty treat right in front of your dog’s nose. Turn around and go in the opposite direction, using the treat like a magnet to lead her by the nose along with you. Make sure you don’t jerk or pull your dog with her leash. You should be able to control your dog’s movement as she follows the tasty treat with her nose. If your dog doesn’t readily follow the treat, find something more delicious that she loves. Try bits of hot dog, cheese or chicken.
  4. After you and your dog have made the U-Turn and walked a couple of steps, release the treat from your fingers and let her eat it.
  5. Practice the sequence above until your dog quickly whips around to walk in the opposite direction as soon as she hears you say the cue “U-Turn.” Eventually, you won’t have to use the treat on her nose anymore to lead her—but do continue to reward her after the two of you have changed directions and walked a few steps.
  6. When your dog becomes a U-Turn pro in your quiet training place, start practicing when the two of you take walks together. Since exciting sights and smells outside will distract your dog, you’ll probably need to use a treat on her nose again, until she gets used to performing her new trick outdoors.

Once you’ve taught your dog to turn and walk in the opposite direction with you when you say “U-Turn,” you can try incorporating an animal who scares her into your training. Start practicing with the animal a great distance away. You don’t want to cause a fearful response, since doing that could intensify your dog’s anxiety. During your training sessions, make sure that your dog doesn’t seem scared or stressed. If she does, just practice the U-Turn farther away from the animal she fears. As long as your dog stays relaxed and happy-looking, you can very gradually move closer and closer to the thing that frightens her during training sessions.

After you teach and practice the U-Turn, you can try using it if you and your dog suddenly encounter an animal who scares her. Remember to stay calm and keep your voice upbeat. The first few times you use the U-Turn in a real-life situation, rather than a training context, you might have to use a treat on your dog’s nose to lead her away. Be sure to keep some tasty treats in your pocket whenever you and your dog go out into the world.

Treatment for Your Dog’s Fear of Other Animals

Desensitization and counterconditioning (DSCC)

DSCC is a common treatment to reduce or eliminate your dog’s fear of other animals. This conditioning method focuses on very gradually exposing a dog to an animal she fears and teaching her that good things, rather than scary or painful things, always happen around that animal. The good things can include highly desirable food and treats, favorite toys, a favorite game, attention, petting or anything else your dog absolutely loves. Please read our article, Desensitization and Counterconditioning, for more information.

Desensitization and counterconditioning are complex and can be tricky to carry out. Because treatment must progress and change according to the pet’s reactions, and because these reactions can be difficult to read and interpret, desensitization and counterconditioning require the guidance of a trained and experienced professional. For help designing and carrying out a desensitization and counterconditioning plan, consult a Certified Applied Animal Behaviorist or a board-certified veterinary behaviorist. If you can’t find a behaviorist, you can seek help from a Certified Professional Dog Trainer, but be sure that the trainer is qualified to help you. Determine whether she or he has education and experience in the use of desensitization and counterconditioning, since this kind of expertise isn’t required for CPDT certification. Please see our article, Finding Professional Help, to locate one of these experts in your area.

Fear of Other Animals Because of Genetic Predisposition, Inadequate Socialization or Inadequate Exposure to Other Animals

By the age of six to seven weeks, most young puppies are highly social and outgoing. They are likely to greet and try to play with any other animal they meet. This tendency continues until about four months of age, at which point some puppies develop varying degrees of neophobia (fear of new things). This developmental phase doesn’t usually pose long-term problems. Most puppies seem slightly leery when encountering new people, places, objects or other animals, but when their pet parents encourage them to investigate, they usually quickly recover from their initial fear. Other puppies show stronger neophobic tendencies. These puppies react more fearfully to new things, and it sometimes takes a great deal of time for them to feel comfortable around them.

The more animals a puppy encounters before she’s four months old, the better. It’s important to give your young puppy many opportunities to have pleasant experiences with or around as many other species as possible: dogs, cats, ferrets, rats and hamsters, horses, livestock—and any other kind of animal you think she’ll encounter. Most urban puppy parents should focus on socializing their puppies to other dogs and cats since city dogs encounter these species most often. In addition, rural dwellers should concentrate their socialization efforts on exposure to horses and other livestock. Because dogs come in a vast array of shapes and sizes, make sure your puppy meets as many different dog breeds as possible so that she recognizes that a Great Dane, a Labrador and a Maltese are all members of her own species. The Ultimate Puppy Toolkit, available through Premier Pet Products www.premier.com, provides an excellent, detailed guide for socializing puppies.

If a puppy doesn’t get opportunities to meet a certain kind of animal, she might come to fear that species as she matures simply because she doesn’t know what it is. For example, a puppy who has been well-socialized to other dogs might enjoy interacting with them as an adult, but if that same puppy doesn’t get a chance to meet many cats, she might fear them when she grows up. Fears that stem from inadequate socialization during a puppy’s sensitive developmental period, which takes place between three weeks and three months of age, can be difficult to overcome. If your dog fears other animals because of undersocialization, it’s unlikely that you’ll be able to eliminate her anxiety altogether. However, desensitization and counterconditioning, in conjunction with careful management, might provide some relief and improve your fearful dog’s behavior.

In addition to meeting a variety of different animals at a young age, your dog needs to continue to have pleasant experiences around them throughout her life. If she doesn’t, the benefits of her early socialization can fade, and she could develop a fear of other animals.

If Your Dog Fears Other Dogs While on Walks

To start, stay as far away from other dogs as possible. When you see another dog approaching, cross the street, if necessary. Position yourself between your dog and the approaching dog. Carry high-value treats, like chicken or cheese. Cut the treats into large, soft chunks so that your dog can nibble and lick them while you hold them between your fingers. Only use these special treats on walks, during your training sessions.

  1. When you see a dog approaching from a distance, encourage your dog to anticipate something wonderful with your happy tone of voice. Say something like, “Oh look, here comes a dog!” As soon as you see your dog notice the other dog, pull out a handful of treats. Stick one right in front of your dog’s nose, and encourage her to nibble at the treat while you keep walking. (If your dog seems unable to eat the treat and walk at the same time, try asking her to sit while the other dog passes at a distance.) Make sure you have enough treats in your hand to keep your dog occupied until the other dog has passed by. Repeat Step 1 until your dog looks up at you in anticipation of a tasty treat when she sees another dog. If you walk your dog at least twice a day and see more than three dogs per walk, expect to repeat Step 1 for at least two or three weeks. If you walk your dog or see other dogs more infrequently when on walks, Step 1 might take up to three months. So be patient and keep at it.
  2. After your dog starts to look up at you excitedly when you say “Here comes a dog!,” gradually start to move closer to passing dogs. Move closer in very small increments. First move just one foot closer. Then, if your dog shows no signs of fear and continues to look up at you expectantly when another dog approaches, you can move another foot closer. If your dog doesn’t seem nervous but doesn’t immediately look up at you when she sees another dog, stay at that distance until she starts to look up at you in anticipation of a treat as soon as another dog appears. Keep in mind that you might spend a number of sessions at one distance before moving closer to passing dogs. As you progress, continue to position yourself between your dog and other dogs to give your dog a sense of security. Do not allow other dogs to greet your dog. Instead, keep up a steady pace as you and your dog pass other dogs.
  3. When your dog can happily pass other dogs only a few feet away, you can move on to the next step. Say, “Here comes a dog!” but delay taking the treat out of your pocket just ever so slightly. Your dog should continue to look at you, anticipating the delivery of her goodie. After a couple of seconds, pull the treat out of your pocket and continue the sequence as described above. Over many sessions, gradually increase the time that you wait before bringing out your dog’s treat. (Aim for a 10-second delay.) During the delay, praise your dog effusively for paying attention to you. If your dog seems distracted by a passing dog’s presence, shorten the delay and work at that level until your dog keeps her attention on you throughout the delay.
  4. If at any time your dog panics and tries to get away, or freezes and refuses to move forward, just stop your forward movement. Don’t encourage or entice your dog to move. Just stand at the end of the leash and wait until your dog is willing to move toward you. Happily praise your dog for forward movement and continue on.
  5. Eventually, during walks with your dog, your dog will look up at you when other dogs approach and keep her attention on you until they pass. To maintain this behavior, you’ll always need to start praising your dog as soon as another dog appears, continue to speak happily to her as the other dog passes and remember to deliver a tasty treat at the end of the sequence.

If your dog has a habit of trying to back out of her collar when she’s afraid, you can use a martingale collar, which will tighten a limited amount if she tries to escape from it. If you have trouble controlling your dog during walks, you can use a head halter, such as the Gentle Leader® Headcollar, the Snoot Loop® or the Halti®Headcollar, to reduce pulling on leash. If you choose to use one of these products, keep in mind that you’ll need to help your dog get used to wearing a head halter before starting to use it on walks. (Most products provide directions for acclimating your dog to her new head halter.) Alternatively, you can try using a special harness to reduce pulling, such as the SENSE-ation™ Harness by Softouch Concepts or the Easy Walk™ Harness by Premier Pet Products. Avoid using choke or pinch collars, which are inappropriate for frightened dogs.

If Your Dog Fears Your Cat

If your dog seems wary of your cat but doesn’t panic every time she sees the cat, working to eliminate your dog’s fear probably isn’t necessary. Many dogs are nervous around cats and deal with their mild anxiety by avoiding interaction with them. However, if you’re concerned that your dog’s fear of your cat compromises either animal’s quality of life, you can try desensitization and counterconditioning. During training sessions, you’ll aim to convince your dog that nothing scary happens around your cat—and in fact, that the presence of the cat leads to GOOD things, like tasty treats.

Try to have at least three 5-to-15-minute training sessions a day. Plan to train in a room where your dog will probably encounter your cat in her daily life.

If you have several cats, make sure you start your training with the calmest, best-behaved cat first. When your dog seems more comfortable with that cat, you can start over and do training exercises with your other cat(s). If any of your cats behave aggressively toward your dog, please read our article, Finding Professional Help, to locate a Certified Applied Animal Behaviorist, a board-certified veterinary behaviorist or a qualified Certified Professional Dog Trainer in your area.

Before training sessions, cut some high-value, soft treats like chicken or cheese into large chunks. When you hold one of the treats between your fingers, your dog should be able to nibble and lick at it for a few seconds before eating it completely.

  1. First, put your cat in a quiet room. You’ll need to contain the cat in a crate or carrier or restrict his movement with a harness and leash. You can also ask a helper to hold your cat for you, as long as your cat doesn’t seem stressed or frightened.
  2. Take your dog to a separate room and clip on her leash. Then try to excite her. In an upbeat voice, say something like, “We’re going to see the kitty!” Then lead your dog into the room where you’ve put your cat. Start by staying far away from your cat so your dog doesn’t freeze in place or try to escape. As soon as your dog sees the cat, praise your dog and let her lick and nibble on one of the treats you prepared. After a few seconds, remove any remaining treat and take your dog out of the room. Once you leave the room, refrain from talking to your dog. Wait quietly for 30 seconds to 3 minutes, and then enter the room again with your dog. (As you repeat this exercise, you can vary the amount of time you wait before reentering the room.)
  3. After every three or four repetitions, ask your helper to move your cat to a new position in the room.
  4. Continue to repeat the sequence. Eventually, your dog should start to look more and more excited about going into the room, looking at your cat and getting tasty treats.

Repeat steps one through four for at least three or four days. Then, if your dog seems relaxed and happy during your training sessions, you can move on to the next steps:

Increasing time with your cat

As long as your dog continues to seem excited about entering the room, looking at your cat, getting a goodie and then exiting the room, you can start to increase the time you spend in the room.

  1. When you and your dog enter the room and your dog notices the cat, feed your dog a treat, just like you’ve done before. After she eats the treat, wait for three to five seconds. Then pull out another treat and feed that to your dog, too. After your dog finishes the second treat, leave the room.
  2. Repeat the exercise, slowly increasing the time that you and your dog spend in the room with your cat. For example, start with only 10 seconds in the room, then increase the time to 20 seconds, then to one minute, etc. Work up to staying in the room for 10 minutes or so. Remember to keep feeding your dog treats, with pauses in between each treat, for as long as the two of you are in the room. Since you’ll need to feed more treats the longer you stay in the room, be sure to prepare and bring enough with you. You can also slowly start to increase the amount of time between the delivery of each treat.

Getting a little closer your cat

When you and your dog have worked up to staying in the room with your cat for about ten minutes, you can start decreasing the distance between your dog and your cat. Remember to make sure to watch your dog’s body language carefully. If she stops looking excited and happy during training exercises, you might have progressed too quickly.

  1. Because you’re going to bring your dog a bit closer to your cat, you’ll need to go back to staying in the room for only a short period of time. When you and your dog enter the room, stop about a foot closer to your cat before you deliver a treat. After your dog eats the treat, leave the room.
  2. Continue to repeat the exercise every day, gradually moving closer and closer to your cat. Make sure that your dog continues to look happy about entering the room and looking at your cat. If you move a little closer to your cat and your dog looks okay—but not excited—keep repeating the exercise at that distance until your dog does start to look expectant and happy again. Then you can move on to the next step, decreasing the distance between your dog and your cat just a bit more. If your dog looks nervous or frightened at any point, move farther away from your cat again and practice the exercise at that distance for a while longer.
  3. If your dog moves toward your cat to investigate, praise her enthusiastically and feed her a few extra treats.

What to do next

When your dog can happily enter the room and stand within a few feet of your restrained or confined cat, you can try letting your cat move around a little.

  1. Ask a helper to limit your cat’s movement with a harness and leash, but allow your cat to move around the room. Do not let your cat approach your dog yet. You may need to start with the dog farther away again, since your cat’s movement might make your dog nervous. Continue to deliver treats during the time that your dog spends in the room with your cat, just as you did during the previous steps.
  2. Praise and feed your dog for watching your cat as he moves around the room. Also deliver extra treats if your dog moves toward your cat to investigate.
  3. If you are absolutely sure that your cat won’t do something to frighten or hurt your dog, you can allow your dog to sniff and greet your cat—but do not force your pets to interact. If your dog prefers to keep her distance, that’s fine.

Remember to continue to deliver goodies whenever your dog encounters your cat during daily activities. Keep a stash of tasty treats somewhere convenient, like on a countertop or in your pocket, so you can access them easily when your dog and your cat are in the same room together. With repetition and time, your dog should become more and more comfortable when she encounters your cat.

If Your Dog Fears Other Animals Because of a Traumatic Event or for No Discernible Reason

If your dog’s fear of other animals was triggered by some type of traumatic event, or if there is no discernible cause for your dog’s fear, a desensitization and counterconditioning plan, like the one outlined above, might help. If your dog experienced a traumatic event when around another animal, you’ll need to tailor your training plan to address the specific frightening event. For instance, if your dog was fine with horses until one stepped on her, you’ll start your training with your dog far away from the horse, but your goal will be to help your dog learn to relax while the horse moves around in close proximity to your dog. (For this type of training, you’ll need the assistance of a helper with a horse who’s highly trained in moving forward, backward and sideways.) Likewise, if your dog was comfortable around your cat until she was accidentally locked in a small room or closet with the cat, you’ll start training with your dog far away from the cat, but you’ll attempt to help your dog learn to relax when your cat is nearby, in the same room.

Medications

Always consult with a veterinarian before giving your dog any type of medication for a behavior problem.

In conjunction with desensitization and counterconditioning, medication might help reduce your dog’s fear and stress. There are many different anti-anxiety medications available for dogs with fear-related behavior problems. If you’d like to explore this option, speak with your veterinarian, a veterinary behaviorist or a Certified Applied Animal Behaviorist who can work closely with your vet. Please see our article, Finding Professional Help, to locate one of these professionals in your area.

General Precautions

To avoid intensifying your dog’s anxiety and increasing her fearful behavior, try to keep her away from animals who frighten her. It’s fine for her to see an object she fears during a structured training session. However, repeatedly encountering a scary thing outside of the training context could severely intensify her anxiety. For instance, if your dog is afraid of your cat, you must keep your pets separated unless you’re doing your treatment exercises with them. If your dog is afraid of unfamiliar dogs when on walks, cross the street or turn and walk in a different direction if you see another dog headed your way. If you encounter free-ranging animals when taking walks with your dog, you might want to carry Direct Stop®, a harmless citronella spray, to discourage other animals who attempt to approach you and your dog. (A word of warning: If you do use Direct Stop®, be sure to avoid accidentally spraying your own dog!)

What NOT to Do

  • Do not force your dog to confront her fear by making her look at, approach or interact with an animal who frightens her. This practice might actually increase your dog’s fear and worsen her behavior.
  • Do not scold or physically punish your dog for being afraid—even if she responds to fear by barking, growling or displaying other aggressive behavior. Punishment will merely intensify your dog’s negative emotions and stress. Yelling or physically “correcting” your dog will probably make her more fearful and can worsen aggressive behavior.
  • Do not constantly reassure your dog. You do want her to look to you for safety and security, but it’s not helpful to repeatedly pick her up or chant, “It’s okay, it’s okay....” Your dog won’t understand what you’re saying, and if you sound anxious, you might make her even more upset. Instead, you can calmly praise and reward your dog for confident, relaxed behavior if she offers it on her own.